Published Papers -- Robert W. Bemer


  1. R.W.Bemer, "Machine Method: Iterative Solution of Games",
    RAND Memorandum RM-595-PR, 1951
  2. R.W.Bemer, "Polynomial relaxation coefficients",
    ACM Annual Meeting, Phila., 1955 Sep
  3. R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - A proposed coding system for the IBM Type 705",
    Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf., 1956 May
  4. R.W.Bemer, "Reference Manual, PRINT I system for the 705",
    IBM Corp., 1956 Oct
  5. R.W.Bemer, "Report on history and use of automatic coding",
    Proc. GUIDE, Second Session, Appendix Z, 1-6, 1957 Feb 13-15
  6. R.W.Bemer, "Why the engineer should know computer programming",
    Automatic Control, 1957 Feb
  7. R.W.Bemer, "How to consider a computer", Data Control Section,
    Automatic Control Magazine, 1957 Mar, 66-69
  8. No earlier published article, describing commercial timesharing
    (which the Internet is), has ever been found.

  9. R.W.Bemer, "PRINT I - an automatic coding system for the IBM 705",
    Automatic Coding, Monograph #3, Proc. Automatic Coding Symposium,
    Franklin Institute, 1957 Apr, 29-38
  10. R.W.Bemer, "The status of automatic programming for scientific computation",
    Proc. 4th Annual Computer Applications Symposium,
    Armour Research Foundation, 1957 Oct 24-25, 107-117
  11. R.W.Bemer, "A machine method for square root computation",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 1, 6-7, 1958 Jan
  12. R.W.Bemer, "XTRAN - a compatible superstructure to FORTRAN,
    with growth possibilities",
    Proc. GUIDE, 1958 May
    An ALGOL predecessor from IBM
  13. R.W.Bemer, "A subroutine method for calculating logarithms",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 5, 5-7, 1958 May
  14. R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on series approximation truncation",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 9, 3-5, 1958 Sep
  15. R.W.Bemer, "Simulation programs",
    Commun. ACM 1, No. 11, 5-6, 1958 Nov
  16. R.W.Bemer, "A checklist of intelligence for programming systems",
    Commun. ACM 2, No. 3, 8-13, 1959 Mar
  17. R.W.Bemer, "A table of symbol pairs",
    Commun. ACM 2, No. 4, 10-11, 1959 Apr
  18. R.W.Bemer, "Evaluating intelligence for programming systems",
    Automatic Control, 1959 Apr, 22-24
  19. R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for a generalized card code of 256 characters",
    Commun. ACM 2, No. 9, 19-23, 1959 Sep
    -- Computing Reviews 00025
    Early public hint of 8-bit bytes to come.
  20. R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "An extended character set standard",
    IBM Tech. Pub. TR00.18000.705, 1960 Jan, rev. TR00.721, 1960 Jun
    -- Computing Reviews 00813
  21. R.W.Bemer, "A proposal for character code compatibility",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 2, 71-72 (1960 Feb)
    -- Computing Reviews 00320
    -- Computer Abstracts 60-865
    Here was disclosed Bemer's invention of escape sequences.
  22. R.W.Bemer, "Comment on COBOL",
    Management and Business Automation, 1960 Mar 22
  23. R.W.Bemer, "Do it by the numbers - digital shorthand",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 10, 530-536, 1960 Oct
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-199
    -- Picture and story, NY Herald Tribune, front page,
       Section 2, 1960 Jul 05
    This method programmed for RCA by C. Berners-Lee,
    father of Tim Berners-Lee, father of the Web.

    Also treated in David Kahn's classic "The Codebreakers",
    and acknowledged as probably unbreakable then.

  24. R.W.Bemer, "Survey of coded character representation",
    Commun. ACM 3, No. 12, 639-641, 1960 Dec
    -- Computing Reviews 00639
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-287
    Exposing the Babel of internal computer codes,
    the impetus for the creation of ASCII.

  25. R.W.Bemer, "Data compression system",
    IBM Technical Disclosures Bull. 3, 8-9, 1961 Jan
  26. R.W.Bemer, "Survey of modern programming techniques",
    The Computer Bulletin 4, No. 4, 127-135, 1961 Mar
    -- Computing Reviews 01213
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1025
  27. R.W.Bemer, "Editor's note on binary reciprocals of decimal integers",
    Commun. ACM 4, No. 4, 116, 1961 Apr
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1909
  28. R.W.Bemer, H.J.Smith, Jr., F.A.Williams,
    "Design of an improved transmission/data processing code",
    Commun. ACM 4, No. 5, 212-217, 225, 1961 May
    -- Computer Abstracts 61-1920
    ASCII in its original form.
  29. M.Grems, R.W.Bemer, F.A.Williams,
    "IBM Glossary for Information Processing", 1961
  30. R.W.Bemer, "The present status, achievement, and trends of programming
    for commercial data processing", chapter in
    Digitale Informationswandler, Vieweg & Sons,
    Braunschweig, Germany, 1962, J. Wiley, 1962, 312-349
    -- Computer Abstracts 62-1630
  31. R.W.Bemer, "An international movement in programming languages", in
    Computer Applications Symp., Spartan Books, Baltimore, MD, 1962, 204-214
  32. R.W.Bemer, W.Buchholz, "Character set",
    Chapter 6 in Planning a Computer System, McGraw-Hill, 1962
    -- Computer Abstracts 62-2004
  33. R.W.Bemer, "A note on range transformations for square root and logarithm",
    Commun. ACM 6, No. 6, 306-307, 1963 Jun
    -- Computing Reviews 04902
    -- Computer Abstracts 63-1839
  34. R.W.Bemer, "The American standard code for information interchange",
    Datamation 9, No. 8, 32-36, 1963 Aug, and ibid 9, No. 9, 39-44, 1963 Sep
    -- Computing Reviews 04910
    -- Computer Abstracts 63-2778
    First major article on ASCII after its formal birth.
  35. R.W.Bemer, "Numerical control and public computing power",
    Proc. APT Tech. Meeting, IIT Research Inst., 1964 Jun, 61-74
  36. R.W.Bemer, J.Booth, "Comments on bit-sequencing of the ASCII in
    serial-by-bit data transmission",
    Commun. ACM 7, No. 8, 483-485, 1964 Aug
    -- Computing Reviews 06519
    -- Computer Abstracts 64-2270
  37. R.W.Bemer, "Software systems customized by computer",
    Proc. IFIP Congress 1965, Vol. II, 356, 1965 May 24-29
    Genesis of the "Software"factory" concept.
  38. R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production", in
    Economics of Automatic Data Processing, A.B.Frielink, Ed.,
    North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1965, 155-166
    -- Computing Reviews 09742
  39. R.W.Bemer, "Progress in hardware and software",
    Proc. Intl. Data Proc. Conf., Management Centre/Europe, 1966 Mar, 9-11
  40. R.W.Bemer, "Aspects Economiques de la Production de Software", in
    Mecanographie et Informatique, 1966 May
  41. R.W.Bemer, "Information processing - a bit expensive?",
    Forum Editorial, Datamation 12, No. 6, 140, 1966 Jun
  42. R.W.Bemer, "A short history of FORTRAN", in
    C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's FORTRAN II/IV, McGraw-Hill, 1966
  43. R.W.Bemer, "Economics of programming production",
    Datamation 12, No. 9, 32-39, 1966 Sep
  44. R.W.Bemer, "ESC facility in USASCII",
    Letter to the Editor, Commun. ACM 10, No. 4, 202, 1967 Apr
  45. R.W.Bemer, "A history of ALGOL", in
    C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's ALGOL, McGraw-Hill, 1967
  46. R.W.Bemer, "Software and realtime systems", in
    Management Information Systems -- an International Progress Report,
    Management Centre/Europe, 30-37, 1967
  47. R.W.Bemer, "On format effectors",
    Commun. ACM 10, No. 7, 396, 1967 Jul
  48. R.W.Bemer, "Towards standards for handwritten zero and oh",
    Commun. ACM 10, 8, 513-518, 1967 Aug
    -- Computing Reviews 14629
    -- Computer Abstracts 67-2508
  49. R.W.Bemer, Foreword to C.P.Lecht, The Programmer's PL/I,
    McGraw-Hill, 1968
  50. R.W.Bemer, A.L.Ellison, "Software instrumentation system for optimum performance",
    Proc. IFIP Cong. 68, Stwe 2, Book C, 39-42
    -- Computer Abstracts 70-1573
    -- Computing Reviews 15765
  51. R.W.Bemer, "The economics of program production",
    Proc. IFIP Congress 68, Booklet I, 13-14
    -- Computer Abstracts 70-1409
  52. R.W.Bemer, "Machine-controlled production environment",
    Report NATO Conf, on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 94-95, 1968 Oct 7-11
    First design document for a Software Factory.
  53. R.W.Bemer, "Checklist for planning software system production",
    Report NATO Conf. on Stwe. Engg., Garmisch, 165-180, 1968 Oct 7-11
  54. R.W.Bemer, "Program transfers need early planning",
    Computerworld, 1969 Feb 05
  55. R.W.Bemer, "A politico-social history of ALGOL", in
    Annual Review of Automatic Programming 5, Pergamon Press, 1969, 151-237
    -- Computing Reviews 18976
    First definitive history of ALGOL development.
  56. R.W.Bemer, "Program transferability",
    Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf. 34, AFIPS Press, Montvale, NJ, 606-607, 1969
    -- Computer Abstracts 69-3162
  57. R.W.Bemer, "Escape to reality",
    Forum Editorial, Datamation 15, No. 8, 239-240, 1969 Aug
  58. R.W.Bemer, "Manageable software engineering", in
    Software Engineering 1, Proc. COINS III, Academic Press,
    New York, London, 1970, 121-138
    -- Computing Reviews 21123
  59. R.W.Bemer, "Information processing standards",
    Proc. DPMA Intl. Conf. 1970, in
    Data Management 8, No. 9, 115-118, 1970 Sep
    -- Computer Abstracts 71-3126
  60. R.W.Bemer, "What is ACM 70?",
    Datamation 16, No. 9, 22-24, 1970 Aug
    -- Computing Reviews 21884
    Summary of what was to have been a National Computer Year.
  61. R.W.Bemer, "Origins of Report Generators for Computers",
    Foreword to C.P.Lecht, Report Generators, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971,
  62. R.W.Bemer, Foreword to M.Berk, The Programmer's COBOL,
    McGraw-Hill, Inter-ACT, New York, 1971
  63. R.W.Bemer, (Ed.), Computers and Crisis,
    Petrocelli Books, ISBN 0-87769-140-1, 1971, 401 pp
    -- Editorial -- The Computer Bulletin, British Computer Soc., 1972 Feb
    -- Computing Reviews 22366, 22527, 23861
    -- Review, New York Times, Book Section, Sun 1971 Sep 05
    -- Review, Nature, 1972 Mar 24
    -- Review, Engg. Societies Library, 1972 Mar
    -- Review, Data Processing Digest, 1972 Feb
  64. R.W.Bemer, "Manageable software engineering", in
    State of the Art Report 1, "The Fourth Generation",
    InfoTech Intl. Ltd., Maidenhead, Berks., England, 445-465, 1971 Jun
  65. R.W.Bemer, "A view of the history of COBOL",
    Honeywell Computer J. 5, No. 3, 130-135, 1971
  66. R.W.Bemer, "What's the Date?",
    Editorial, Honeywell Computer J. 5, No. 4, 205-208, 1971
    First worldwide published warning of the Y2K problem.
  67. R.W.Bemer, "A software engineer's workshop: tools and techniques", in
    State of the Art Report 11, "Software Engineering",
    InfoTech Intl. Ltd., Maidenhead, Berks., England, 273-286, 1972
  68. R.W.Bemer, "Publishing a journal with the SI system and making it work",
    Proc. 19th Intl. Tech. Commun. Conf., STC, Wash. DC, 89, 1972 May 10-13
  69. R.W.Bemer, "A view of the history of the ISO character code",
    Honeywell Computer J. 6, No. 4, 274-286, 1972
    Sociological history of ASCII.
  70. R.W.Bemer, "The role of a computer in the publication of a primary journal",
    Proc. 1st Natl. Computer Conf., 42, AFIPS Press, Montvale, NJ, M16-M20, 1973 Jun
    -- Computer Abstracts 74-1927
  71. R.W.Bemer, A.R.Shriver, "Integrating computer text processing with photocomposition"
    IEEE Trans. Prof. Commun., PC-16, No. 3, 92-96, 1973 Sep
  72. R.W.Bemer, "Computers and our society",
    NordData, Copenhagen, 1973 Aug, Honeywell Computer J. 8, No. 1, 49-54, 1974
    -- Reprinted in Jurimetric J., 1974 Fall, 43-55
    -- Reprinted (translated to German by Prof. Heinz Zemanek)
       as "über den computer in unserer Gesellschaft",
       Elektronische Rechenanlagen 19, 167-172, 1977 Aug
    -- Republished as "The frictional interface between computers and society",
       Computers and People, 14-19, 1975 Jan
    -- Computing Reviews 29244
    -- Computer Abstracts 77-2514
    Early warning of societal danger due to bad software.
  73. R.W.Bemer, A.R.Shriver, "Integrating computer text processing with photocomposition"
    Honeywell Computer J. 7, No. 4, 261-266, 1974
  74. R.W.Bemer, "An analysis of the arguments about spelling of (SI) units",
    American Metric J. 2, No. 2, 10,19,27, 1974 Mar/Apr
  75. R.W.Bemer, "Metric according to Webster",
    American Metric J. 2, No. 2, 14,59, 1974 Mar/Apr
  76. R.W.Bemer, "Metric paper sizes ... there are none",
    American Metric J. 2, No. 4, 25-26, 1974 Jul/Aug
  77. R.W.Bemer, "European Market prepares to block all U.S. made goods",
    American Metric J. 2, No. 6, 25-26, 1974 Nov/Dec
  78. R.W.Bemer, "Public Education requested",
    American Metric J. 3, No. 1, 5, 1975 Jan/Feb
  79. R.W.Bemer, "Standards in performance evaluation and measurement",
    Computer Performance Evaluation:
    Report of the 1973 NBS/ACM Workshop, 141-144, 1975 Sep
  80. R.W.Bemer, "Social aspects of computers",
    Proc. HIS Computer Security and Privacy Symp., 33-35, 1975 Apr 29-30
  81. R.W.Bemer, "Making microfiche irresistible",
    J. Micrographics 9, No. 3, 103-107, 1976 Jan/Feb
  82. R.W.Bemer, "ASCII -- the data alphabet that will endure",
    Keynote, Proc. 2nd Natl. NBS Symposium on
    Data Elements in Information Processing, 17-22, 1975 Oct 23-24
  83. R.W.Bemer, "Alternatives to the generalized DBMS",
    Proc. InfoTech State-of-the-Art Conf., Report 39,
    "Online Data Bases", 149-161, 1976 Nov 08-10
  84. R.W.Bemer, "Toward the complete software factory",
    Proc. Honeywell Software Productivity Symp., 651-658, 1977 Apr 26-28
  85. R.W.Bemer, "Inside ASCII - Part I",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 5, 96-102, 1978 May
  86. R.W.Bemer, "Inside ASCII - Part II",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 6, 64-74, 1978 Jun
  87. R.W.Bemer, "Inside ASCII - Part III",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 7, 80-87, 1978 Jul
    First major tutorial on total ASCII.
  88. R.W.Bemer, "Introduction to the TEX language - Part I",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 8, 144-177, 1978 Aug
  89. R.W.Bemer, "Introduction to the TEX language - Part II",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 9, 124-127, 1978 Sep
  90. R.W.Bemer, "Introduction to the TEX language - Part III",
    Interface Age Magazine 3, No. 10, 126-131, 1978 Oct
  91. R.W.Bemer, "Using ASCII",
    Computers Today 1, No. 1, 1979 Jan
  92. R.W.Bemer, "Time and the computer",
    Interface Age Magazine 4, No. 2, 74-79, 1979 Feb
    Referenced in "Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia",
    Internet RFC 822, Appendix 7, Bibliography
    Second worldwide published warning of the Y2k problem.
    This is the basic time document for design of the Internet.

  93. R.W.Bemer, "Metrication aids education -- and vice versa",
    Mathematics Teacher 72, No. 4, 254-260, 1979 Apr
  94. R.W.Bemer, "New software ensures integrity of files while allowing access to data",
    Editorial, Computer Business News, 1979 Jun 04, p. 16
    (adapted from "Indirect file access", Interface '79, Chicago)
  95. R.W.Bemer, "Information acquisition, storage, and retrieval in the
    office environment", in
    State-of-the-Art Report 66, "Information Technology",
    InfoTech Intl., Maidenhead, Berks, UK, 7/1-7/13, 1979 Nov
  96. R.W.Bemer, "Office automation and invisible files",
    Automazione e Instrumentazione 7, No. ?, 1980 Mar, Italy
  97. R.W.Bemer, "Incorrect data and social harm",
    DATA Magazine, Copenhagen, 10, No. 9, 43-46, 1980 Sep, 43-46
    -- Reprinted in Computer Security J. 1, No. 2, 1982 Winter, 51-56
  98. R.W.Bemer, "TEX-based screen editor",
    Proc. HLSUA Forum XXXI, 158-160, 1980 Oct 12-15
  99. R.W.Bemer, "File management for office automation",
    InfoTech State-of-the-Art Conf., London, Vol. 2, 15-26. 1980 Nov 26-28
  100. R.W.Bemer, "Problems and solutions for electronic files in the office"
    Proc. AICA Annual Conf., Pavia, Italy, 131-133, 1981 Sep
  101. R.W.Bemer, "Honeywell Screen Environment",
    Proc. HLSUA Forum XXXIII, 397-401, 1981 Oct 5-7
  102. R.W.Bemer, "Computing prior to FORTRAN",
    Pioneer Day, Proc. Natl. Computer Conf., 51, AFIPS Press,
    Montvale, NJ, 1982 Jun, 811-816
    -- Also in Annals of the History of Computing 6, No. 1, 16-18, 1984 Jan
    -- Review, p. 74
  103. R.W.Bemer, "Standards for keyboards",
    Intl. J. Computers & Standards 1, 1982, 133-135
  104. R.W.Bemer, "Coordinated Text and Transparencies",
    Commun. ACM, Pracniques Section, 1983 Jun
  105. R.W.Bemer, "The Screen Environment (R) as an Application and
    Software Factory Shell",
    Proc. HLSUA Forum XXXVIII, 287-291 (double-paged), 1984 Apr 08-11
  106. R.W.Bemer, "Working on Moon Mountain",
    Reader's Forum, Datamation, 1984 Sep 16, 173-176
  107. R.W.Bemer, "Nearly 650 memories of the 650",
    Annals of the History of Computing 8, No. 1, 66-69, 1986 Jan
  108. R.W.Bemer, "File-Driven Applications",
    Proc. HLSUA Forum XLII, 296-300 (double-paged), 1986 Apr 06-09
  109. R.W.Bemer, "Making Changes to a File",
    Honeywell Independent Users Monthly, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1986 Apr
  110. R.W.Bemer, "PSE -- a New Screen Environment (R) Product",
    Proc. HLSUA Forum XLVIII, 1989 Apr 09-12, ?-? (double-paged)
  111. R.W.Bemer, "Government's role in the year 2000 crisis",
    Keynote, Govt. Y2K Conf., Washington DC, 1997 Dec 10
  112. R.W.Bemer, "The Y2K Solution, 'a silver-plated bullet',
    Keynote, 6th Annual Midwest Intergovt Tech Conf., Columbus, OH, 1998 Apr 29
  113. R.W.Bemer, "XDAY! eXchange DAY -- a proposal by Bob Bemer", 1998 Nov 20,
    at http://www.year2000.com/archive/bemer.html
    The best way to do time calculations.
  114. R.W.Bemer, "The Y2K problem was avoidable, at virtually no cost/effort",
    Keynote - Lex Millenniale Conf. of Center for International
    Legal Studies, Boston, MA, 1999 Apr 17
  115. R.W.Bemer, "How will you clean up the present mess? --
    law, guilds, evangelism, cloning, or better miracles?",
    Keynote, Dept. of Defense Software Technology Conf., 1999 May 03
  116. R.W.Bemer, "Interim method of using two characters for four-digit years",
    Proc. Dept. of Defense Software Technology Conf., Salt Lake City, 1999 May 04
  117. R.W.Bemer, "Y2K Excuses",
    Westergaard online, 1999 Dec 30
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